Despite gift one des Europe"s most far-reaching destinations zum migration, Germany has lang wrestled with ns notion that it may or may not be a ‘country von immigration’. Draw close this inquiry from a confident rather than a normative perspective, this post explores just how Germany ist changing bei this respect, über examining transforms over ns past 2 decades in terms of migration flows, ns policy framework and the degree von societal und institutional adaptation to migration. It suggests that Germany has actually become much more diverse and deshalb notes die major policy developments that oase taken ar after ns change des government bei 1998. While the dominant theme of wandern policy has moved on from prevention zu integration, Germany"s unavoidable demographic change poses a major neu challenge, which will require governments zu look when again to more active recruitment des labour migration.

Du schaust: Deutschland schafft sich ab flüchtlinge


This article draws ~ above research conducted as part des a project funded über the DAAD"s ‘Promoting German Studies bei the UK’ programme and was erste presented at ns conference ‘Between national Closure and Supranational Governance: Work, Welfare und Migrant Integration in Germany and the EU’, organized at ns Centre weil das European, Russian und Eurasian studies at die Munk college of global Affairs, University von Toronto, 6–7 might 2011. Ich gratefully acknowledge the DAAD"s generous support together with the comments und suggestions obtained from participants an Toronto. I would also like to thank Insa Nolte, williams Paterson und Christin Hess, and two cotton referees, zum their advantageous comments on in earlier version des this article.


C. Crouch, ‘Change bei European cultures since ns 1970s’, west European politics 31/1–2 (2008), pp.14–39.

For circumstances B. Brunner, Nach Amerika: Die biografie der deutschen Auswanderung (München: C.H. Beck, 2009); J. Raab und J. Wirrer (eds.), die German Presence an the U.S.A. (Münster: Lit, 2009).

Treaties were signed with Italy (1955), Spain (1960), green (1960), Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965) and Yugoslavia (1968). During ns 1970s und 1980s, the GDR deshalb recruited labour from socialist countries, albeit on a much smaller scale than west Germany.

See significantly C. Joppke, Immigration and the land State (Oxford: Oxford university Press, 1999), pp.62–99; S. Green, ns Politics des Exclusion: Institutions und Immigration Policy in Contemporary Germany (Manchester: Manchester universität Press, 2004); D. Thränhardt, ‘Die Bundesrepublik deutschland – ns unerklärtes Einwanderungsland’, ende Politik und Zeitgeschichte B24 (1988), pp.3–13; S. Goodman, ‘The Politics and Policies des Immigration in Germany: A Rearview look at at ns Makings of a “Country des Immigration”’, German Politics und Society 25/4 (2007), pp.99–110; P. Martin, ‘Germany: regulating Migration in the Twenty-First Century’, bei W. Cornelius et al. (eds.), steuerung Immigration: A globalen Perspective (Stanford, CA: Stanford universität Press, 2004); A. Messina, the Logics and Politics of Post-WWII wandern to west Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge universität Press. 2007), esp. Pp.124–-34; D. Klusmeyer und D. Papademetriou, immigration Policy bei the commonwealth Republic von Germany: Negotiating Membership and Remaking the land (Oxford: Berghahn, 2009).

Joppke, Immigration and the land State, p.62; R. Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France und Germany (Cambridge MA: harvard University Press, 1992), p.174.

For a good overview von migration in a historical perspective, seen U. Herbert, geschichte der Ausländerpolitik in Deutschland (München: C.H. Beck, 2001).

S. Green, ‘Immigration, Asylum und Citizenship bei Germany: die Impact von Unification und the berlin Republic’, west European politics 24/4 (2001), pp. 82-104.

In fact, this number has had to be revised downwards as a result of the 2011 Census, i beg your pardon revealed that the number des non-nationals bei Germany top top 9 may 2011, punkt 6.2 million, was around geholfen a million lower than had previously to be assumed. Seen ‘Ausländische bevölkerung laut Zensus anscheinend geringer als bislang angenommen’, easily accessible from (accessed 2 Aug. 2013).

‘Deutschland: konzept zur Fachkräftesicherung beschlossen’, migration und population 6/2011, available from = 110603 (accessed 25 Sept. 2012).

Statistisches Bundesamt, population Deutschlands bis zu 2060. 12. Koordinierte Bevölkerungsvorausberechnung (Wiesbaden: statistisches Bundesamt, 2009).

Bundesministerium von Innern, Jedes alter zählt. Demografiestrategie der bundesregierung (Berlin: Bundesministerium von Innern, 2012), easily accessible from (accessed 13 Dec. 2012), pp.41–2. The fact that demographic alters would require an ext immigration has actually of kurse been recognised zum much longer, and featured prominently in both die Süssmuth und Müller Commissions des 2000–01.

Calculated indigenous figures in Bundesamt zum Migration und Flüchtlinge, Migrationsbericht 2010 (Nürnberg: BAMF, 2012), pp.206–7.

This trend continued in 2011, in which year net wandern of +279,300 was recorded.

Statistisches Bundesamt, bevölkerung Deutschlands bis 2060.

BAMF, Migrationsbericht 2010, p.46.

Ibid., p.130.

Y. Aydin, ‘Der Diskurs um herum die Abwanderung Hochqualifizierter türkischer Herkunft an die Türkei’, paper 3–9, HWWI-Kompetenzbereich migration Research kopieren, gruppe (Hamburg: HWWI, 2010), available from (accessed 10 Sept. 2012); A. Ette und L. Sauer, ‘Abschied von dem Einwanderungsland Deutschland? das Migration Hochqualifizierter in dem europäischen und international Vergleich’ (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2010), available from (accessed 10 Sept. 2012); ‘Kültürschock in Istanbul’, ns Spiegel, 28 June 2010.

BAMF, Migrationsbericht 2010, p.182.

V. Ronge, ‘Auf dem Weg um zu “Einwanderungsland”?’, in R. Czada und H. Wollmann (eds.), über der bon zur krapfen Republik (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 2000).

Cited an Green, die Politics des Exclusion, p.110.

Cited an P. Martin, ‘Germany: controlling Migration in the Twenty-First Century’, bei W. Cornelius, T. Tsuda, P. Martin and J. Hollifield (eds.), steuerung Immigration: A globalen Perspective (Stanford, CA: Stanford university Press, 2004).

Exceptions to be made zum seasonal migration in the agricultural sector ~ 1990. A more exception zu sein granted to citizens of Andorra, Australia, Israel, Japan, Canada, Monaco, new Zealand, san Marino und the united States, who have the general right to work if existing vacancies can not be filled from in ~ Germany.

H. Kolb, ‘Die eco-friendly Card: Inszenierung eines Politikwechsels’, das ende Politik und Zeitgeschichte B27 (2005), pp.18–24.

On ns process und interests underpinning this decision, seen A. Wochnik, ‘Governance in Foreign Policy-Making an Germany und Poland and Polish-German relationships – the Role von Non-state Actors’, phd Thesis, Aston University, 2013.

M. Gibney, die Ethics and Politics of Asylum: free Democracy and the Response to Refugees (Cambridge: Cambridge universität Press, 2004).

However, due to the fact that 2009, asylum applications have increased once more, to reach 77,700 in 2012.

Final recognition rates are generally greater as a result von judicial appeal.

BAMF, Migrationsbericht 2010, p.250.

Ibid., p.112.

S. Goodman, ‘Controlling Immigration v Language und Country expertise Requirements’, west European national politics 34/2 (2011), pp.235–55.

Green, die Politics des Exclusion, pp.34–6.

Joppke, Immigration und the Nation-State, pp.66–7.

See U. Davy, ‘Integration of Immigrants in Germany: A gradually Evolving Concept’, European journal of Migration and Law 7 (2005), pp.123–44; also K. Bade, ‘Integration: versäumte gelegenheiten und nachholende Politik’, ende Politik und Zeitgeschichte B22–23 (2007), pp.32–8. Traditionally, integration plan refers to non-national migrants, not ethnic Germans, for whom a an extensive range des integration measures was available bei the past. Much more recently, it ist considered kommen sie apply to people of Migrationshintergrund, regardless des their nationality.

Cited an P. Katzenstein, Policy und Politics in Germany: ns Growth des a Semisovereign state (Philadelphia: Temple university Press, 1987), pp.239–40.

P. O"Brien, Beyond the Swastika (London: Routledge, 1996), p.97.

C. Joppke, ‘Beyond national Models: public Integration Policies zum Immigrants in Western Europe’, west European national politics 30/1 (2007), pp.1–22; S. Goodman, ‘Fortifying Citizenship: civic Integration plan Strategies bei Western Europe’, world Politics 64/4 (2012), pp.659–98.

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See discussion des both bodies in E. Musch, ‘Consultation Structures in German Immigrant Integration Politics: The national Integration Summit and the German Islam Conference’, German politics 21/1 (2012), pp.73–90. See deshalb ‘Deutschland: Islamkonferenz und Integrationsgipfel provozieren Kritik’, migration und bevölkerung 5/2013, obtainable from (accessed 2 Aug. 2013).

Brubaker, Citizenship und Nationhood an France und Germany, pp.165–71; also P. Hogwood, ‘Citizenship Controversies an Germany: the Twin Legacy von Völkisch Nationalism and the Alleinvertretungsanspruch’, German politics 9/3 (2000), pp.125–44.

Hogwood, ‘Citizenship Controversies in Germany’, p.133; Green, the Politics of Exclusion, pp.39–41.

These changes, which were erste introduced an the 1990 Ausländergesetz, saw die introduction des a right zu naturalisation under details conditions (Anspruchseinbürgerung).

M. Howard, ‘The Causes and Consequences of Germany"s neu Citizenship Law’, German national politics 17/1 (2008), pp.41–62.

It need to be detailed that ns rejection of doppel citizenships is in principle, not in practice: around geholfen of every naturalisations are with dual citizenship. Nonetheless, their a priori rejection means that most applicants zum naturalisation schutz at least to try kommen sie be exit from their original citizenship – a procedure which ist often lengthy, cumbersome und expensive. Lakers S. Green, ‘Much Ado around Not-Very-Much? Assessing Ten Years von German Citizenship Reform’, Citizenship forschung 16/2 (2012), pp.173–88.

See ‘Deutschland: Erneute diskutieren um Optionspflicht’, wandern und population 1/2013, obtainable from (accessed 10 Jan. 2013).

See C. Joppke, Selecting von Origin. Ethnic Migration bei the Liberal zustand (Cambridge, MA: harvard University Press, 2005).

U. Münch, Asylpolitik bei der Bundesrepublik deutschland (Opladen: Leske und Budrich, 1992).

P. Hall, ‘Policy Paradigms, society Learning, und the State: die Case von Economic Policymaking bei Britain’, Comparative national politics 25/3 (1993), pp.275–96.

L. Murray, ‘Einwanderungsland Bundesrepublik Deutschland? Explaining die Evolving Positions of German Political neben on Citizenship Policy’, German Politics and Society 33 (1994), pp.23–56.

See A. Busch, ‘Extensive Politik in den Klippen der Semisouveranität: das Innen- und Rechtspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition’, an C. Egle, T. Ostheim and R. Zohlnhöfer (eds.), ns rot-grüne Projekt. Eine balance der behörde Schröder 1998–2002 (Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, 2003); A. Busch, ‘Von der Reformpolitik kommen sie Restriktionspolitik? das Innen- und Rechtspolitik das zweiten regierung Schröder’, in C. Egle and R. Zohlnhöfer (eds.), ende des rot-grünen Projektes. Eine balance der behörde Schröder 2002–2005 (Wiesbaden: Verlag zum Sozialwissenschaften, 2007).

This included ns former international Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher and the conservative stalwart Alfred Dregger.

On angela Merkel"s influence on immigration and citizenship policy, lakers J. Mushaben, ‘Citizenship und Migration plans under Merkel"s großartiger Coalition’, German national politics 20/3 (2011), pp.376–91.

A. Busch, ‘Kontinuität statt Wandel: das Innen- und Rechtspolitik das Großen Koalition’, an C. Egle und R. Zohlnhöfer (eds.), ns zweite größe Koalition. Eine bilanz der behörde Merkel, 2005–2009 (Wiesbaden: Verlag zum Sozialwissenschaften, 2010).

C. Joppke, ‘Why Liberal claims Accept unwanted Immigration’, welt Politics 50/2 (1998), pp.266–93; Joppke, Immigration and the Nation-State.

Goodman, ‘Controlling Immigration’, p.242.

A. Geddes and V. Guiraudon, ‘Britain, France und EU Anti-discrimination Policy: the Emergence of in EU policy Paradigm’, west European politics 27/2 (2004), pp.334–53.

S. Green, ‘Divergent Traditions, Convergent Responses: Immigration und Integration Policy an the UK und Germany’, German politics 16/1 (2007), pp.95–115.

M. Howard, ‘Variation in Dual Citizenship Policies bei the Countries of the EU’, international Migration review 39 (2005), pp.697–720.

F. Lämmermann, ‘Einbürgerung – Aktuelle Entwicklungen und Perspektiven’, Zeitschrift weil das Ausländerrecht 9 (2009), pp.289–96; ‘“Lasst uns hier abhauen’”, der Spiegel, 2 Sept. 2002.

T. Faist, ‘How zu Define a Foreigner? the Symbolic Politics of Immigration in German Partisan Discourse, 1978–1992’, west European politics 17/2 (1994), pp.50–71.

Beauftragte der bundesregierung für Migration, flüchtenden und Integration, 9. Prüfbericht der Beauftragten der bundesregierung für Migration, flüchtling und Integration von die Lage das Ausländerinnen und Ausländer an Deutschland (Berlin: Beauftragte ns Bundesregierung, 2012), pp.26–38.

Beauftragte das Bundesregierung, 9. Bericht, pp.38–43.

Noted deshalb by Musch, ‘Consultation Structures in German Immigrant Integration Policies’, p.76; on the role and importance of parapublic institutions an German politics, seen Katzenstein, Policy und Politics in West Germany, pp.58–9.

Beauftragte ns Bundesregierung, 9. Bericht, pp.44–76.

For instance, ‘Germans Celebrate ns Diversity von their “Multiculti” world Cup Team’, ns Observer, 27 June 2010.

German Marshall Fund, Transatlantic Trends: Immigration. Key Findings 2011 (Washington, DC: German Marshall Fund, 2011), easily accessible from (accessed 12 Sept. 2012).

See J. Palmowski, ‘In Search des the German Nation: Citizenship und the Challenge of Integration’, Citizenship lernen 12/6 (2008), pp.547–63; see also C. Lacroix, Immigrants, Literature and National Integration (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010).

Green, the Politics of Exclusion, pp.97–103, 116–20; Klusmeyer and Papademetriou, immigration Policy an the commonwealth Republic von Germany, pp.231–7.

‘Angela merkel Declares Death von German Multiculturalism’, the Guardian, 17 Oct. 2010; see deshalb N. Kelek, das fremde Braut: einen Bericht das ende dem Inneren ns türkischen Lebens in Deutschland (Köln: Kiepenheuer und Witsch, 2005); H. Buschkowsky, Neukölln zu sein überall (Berlin: Ullstein, 2012); S. Luft, Abschied von Multikulti: Wege ende der Integrationskrise (Gräfeling: Resch, 2006).

T. Sarrazin, deutschland schafft wir ab (München: deutsch Verlags-Anstalt, 2010).

This argumentation echoes ns notorious Heidelberg Manifesto des 1982. See Katzenstein, Politics und Policy bei West Germany, pp.243–5 zum the text.

See K. Spenlen (ed.), Gehört der Islam kommen sie Deutschland? daten und Analysen zu einem Meinungsstreit (Düsseldorf: düssre University Press, 2013); also C. Joppke, Veil (Cambridge: Polity, 2009), pp.53–80.

‘Deutschland: gericht stärkt Diskriminierungsverbot’, wandern und bevölkerung 9/2012, available from (accessed 10 Jan. 2013).

A. Wüst, als wählen Neubürger? politische Einstellungen und Wahlverhalten eingebürgerter Personen in Deutschland (Wiesbaden: Leske + Budrich, 2002).

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See B. Donovan, ‘Minority Representation in Germany’, German politics 16/4 (2007), pp.455–80.